South Africa is the third most biologically diverse country in the world, thanks to its amazing geography and climate.
The Kruger to Canyons Biosphere contains widely diverse landscapes, ranging in altitude from 300 metres above sea level in the east to in excess of 2,000m in the Drakensburg Escarpment where the plateau basin begins.
As the geography and geology vary, the average rainfall differs significantly across the Biosphere region, averaging 368mm per annum in the plains, but increasing to up to eight times the quantity (3,000mm) on the plateau. These two factors in combination lead to a wide variety of habitats and niches for flora and fauna to exploit.
The Kruger to Canyons Biosphere is of particular ecological importance. It contains three major biomes (distinctive biogeographic regions), namely dry savannah woodlands, Afromontane forest and Afromontane grassland.
As the altitude (and consequently rainfall) increases from east to west, a great biodiversity can be witnessed progressing from scrub and savannah upwards into South Africa’s unique fynbos floral system, rainforests, and climax grasslands on the top of the Escarpment where water is more abundant.